What Are The Basic Parts Of A Sensor?
2022-07-15

A sensor’s ability to communicate is vital for its usefulness. It can communicate with other sensors, display its data directly to the user, or transfer the data wirelessly. 

A sensor is comprised of a transmitter and receiver. It operates similarly to how bats navigate without sight. A transmitter emits a high-frequency pulse series that the receiver checks for reflections. 

The distance of the object reflected by the signal is then determined by a simple calculation of the sound’s speed. A sensor may also be classified as analog or digital. In general, sensors are either passive or active, depending on the type of input.

A sensor can also contain a number of electronic components. The sensors typically include sensors and signal processing hardware. The latter two components are essential for the proper operation of the sensor. 

If you want to know more about the basic parts of a sensor, continue reading this article. 

What Are The Basic Parts Of A Sensor?

A sensor has several basic components. These include an input and a process or object that is being monitored. These are then followed by signal processing, which may be as simple as a pullup resistor or as complex as a full-blown analog front end, which may account for temperature, offset, and linearity. Here are the basic parts of a sensor. 

  • Micro Processor

A microprocessor is a processor that includes data processing logic on a single or a series of integrated circuits. It combines logic, arithmetic, and control circuitry to perform the functions of a central processing unit. Its size and power allow it to be used in a wide range of applications. A microprocessor is a chip in a sensor that performs computations for the operating system and applications. Microprocessors have the capacity to process a wide range of tasks, and the simplest microprocessors perform a variety of functions. 

  • Memory

The vast amount of data generated by sensors must be processed to extract valuable information. But sending this data to servers can drain batteries and slow down the processing process. Local processing is necessary but requires enormous computational power. Microprocessors have sufficient computational power, but their memory speed is far too slow to retrieve enough data from memory. The memory hierarchy comprises two types of memory: volatile and non-volatile. Volatile memory initiates and buttresses shared processes. While non-volatile memory has a longer lifespan and greater rewrite capabilities, its rewrite cycles limit its lifespan. 

  • Battery

The basic part of any sensor is the battery. In a nutshell, the battery stores the power that is used to run the device. To operate a sensor, power must be transferred between the sensors. A battery can be recharged with a solar cell or by radio frequency. The batteries also receive energy from thermal differences or vibration. The batteries’ efficiency is dependent on the amount of power that they can store. The basic components of a battery include an anode, cathode, and electrolyte. 

  • Communication Module

The Communication Module of a sensor enables the communication between the sensors. The communication interface is made up of a hardware interface and a software interface. This software interface is typically referred to as the Simband protocol, and it supports both sensor modules and Simsense. The protocol defines a generic frame structure and ensures data integrity and reliable transfer. It is designed to be abstract from the hardware interface to enable two-way communications and query data. It also ensures backward compatibility.